A Guide To Different Ovens No Matter Where You Live

A Guide To Different Ovens Shopping for a brand new oven or stove can be quite overwhelming. There are different brands of electric ovens, gas ovens and cook tops to choose from. This guide to different ovens can provide you with information you need to make a well informed purchasing decision. Gas Ovens Gas ovens … Continue reading “A Guide To Different Ovens No Matter Where You Live”

A Guide To Different Ovens

Shopping for a brand new oven or stove can be quite overwhelming. There are different brands of electric ovens, gas ovens and cook tops to choose from. This guide to different ovens can provide you with information you need to make a well informed purchasing decision.
Gas Ovens
Gas ovens are powered by gas and typically feature electronic igniters. Gas ovens can still function without electricity, so if there is a power outage, you can continue your cooking. Gas ovens come in both convection and traditional varieties.

Electric Ovens

Electric ovens use the radiation of the heat gotten from a heating elements in order to cook food – the heating element is either located on the oven’s top or bottom or even hidden on the back wall using a fan to distribute heat called fan forced. The heat waves created by the heating element bounces off the metal insulated walls of electric ovens to cook the food.  Unlike gas ovens, electric ovens provide more even controlled temperatures – foods are evenly cooked with electric ovens. They are also easier to use and keep clean. Electric ovens are also available in convention and traditional varieties.

When you find the perfect oven for your kitchen, you may want to get a new cook top; after all, you can’t do all your cooking with just an oven. When it comes to choosing a stove, most people are now interested in having a “greener” kitchen, which will be a good thing for the environment. Electric cook tops (especially induction cook tops) are the most energy efficient cook tops – perfect for ardent cooks and chefs who want to contribute their own quota to protecting the environment.

Before you choose a stove, electric or gas oven, here are 2 simple rules to follow:
•    Have a budget – know how much you can afford to buy a stove or oven, and stick to it!

•    Know your cooking requirements – how often do you plan to cook? There is no point buying a stove or oven with all the bells and whistles when you do not cook often.

After sales services with ovens can be a big problem if your oven runs out of warranty, There are many thing that will need maintenance in your electric oven, some being element replacements, thermostat repairs and cook top coil element replacement. United Electrical Services are electrician that service melbourne and surrounding suburbs, they offer expert oven repairs when you need it, at competitive pricing. So when the warranty runs out for your oven and you need expert oven maintenance Contact United Electrical.

How to Choose a Right OTDR?

An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is an optoelectronic instrument used to measure fiber loss, the loss and reflectance of fiber splices, and to locate loss irregularities within the fiber. Now there are many types of OTDRs providing different test and measurement needs including very simple fault finders and advanced OTDRs for link certification. Then, how to choose the right one?

First, you should evaluate your needs. Installing or maintaining fiber? For simple maintenance, a simple or low cost OTDR is good. It’s easy to use, requires the lowest possible investment and some even provides total link loss and optical return loss values. For not very complex installation, you should choose a mini OTDR based on the following key parameters for your specific environment.

Dynamic Range
This specification determines the total optical loss that the OTDR can analyze; i.e., the overall length of a fiber link that can be measured by the unit. The higher the dynamic range, the longer the distance the OTDR can analyze. Insufficient dynamic range will influence the ability to measure the complete link length and affect the accuracy of the link loss, attenuation and far-end connector losses. It’s good to choose an OTDR whose dynamic range is 5 to 8 dB higher than the maximum loss you will encounter.

Dead Zones
Dead zones originate from reflective events (connectors, mechanical splices, etc.) along the link, and they affect the OTDR’s ability to accurately measure attenuation on shorter links and differentiate closely spaced events, such as connectors in patch panels, etc. There are two types of dead zones to specify OTDR performance:

Attenuation dead zone refers to the minimum distance required, after a reflective event, for the OTDR to measure a reflective or non-reflective event loss. Try to choose OTDR with the shortest possible attenuation dead zone to measure short links and to characterize or find faults in patchcords and leads. Industry standard values range from 3 m to 10 m for this specification.

Event dead zone is the distance after a reflective event starts until another reflection can be detected. If a reflective event is within the event dead zone of the preceding event. Industry standard values range from 1 m to 5 m for this specification. The event dead zone specification is always smaller than the attenuation dead zone specification.

Sampling Resolution
Sampling resolution refers to the minimum distance between two consecutive sampling points acquired by the instrument. This is a quite important parameter as it defines the ultimate distance accuracy and fault-finding capability of the OTDR.

Pass/Fail Thresholds
This parameter is also important because lots of time can be saved in the analysis of OTDR traces if you set Pass/Fail thresholds for parameters of interest (e.g., such as splice loss or connector reflection). These thresholds highlight parameters that have exceeded a Warning or Fail limit set and, when used in conjunction with reporting software, it can rapidly provide re-work sheets for installation/commissioning engineers.

Report Generation
If an OTDR has specialized post-processing software allowing fast and easy generation of OTDR reports, it can save up to 90% post-processing time. These can also include bidirectional analyses of OTDR traces and summary reports for high-fiber-count cables.

To choose a right OTDR for your test application, you should better consider the above factors. Fiberstore offers JDSU MTS-4000, YOKOGAWA AQ1200 MFT-OTDR, EXFO AXS-110-023B OTDR 1310/1550 nm (37/35 dB), etc,. with great accuracyHealth Fitness Articles, measurement range and instrument resolution. There must be one suitable for you and helpful to maximize your return on investment.

What Should You Know Before Using an OTDR?

OTDR, the optical time domain reflectometer, is the most important investigation tool for optical fibers. It’s applied in the measurement of fiber loss, connector loss and for the determination of the exact place and the value of cable discontinuities. It’s the only device which can verify inline splices on concatenated fiber optic cables and locating faults.

To know how to use OTDR for the fiber investigations, first you should know the structure and working principle of OTDR equipment. When a short light pulse transmits into the fiber under test, the time of the incidence and the amplitude of the reflected pulses are measured. The commonly used pulse width ranges from nanosecs to microsecs, the power of the pulse can exceed 10 mW. The repetition frequency depends on the fiber length, typically is between 1 and 20 kHz, naturally it is smaller for longer fibers. The division by 2 at the inputs of oscilloscope is needed since both the vertical (loss) and the horizontal (length) scales correspond to the one-way length.

Besides, to use an OTDR successfully, you should also know how to operate the instrument. The following is about the experiences collected from some experienced people who use OTDRs during installation and for maintaining telecommunication networks.

Keep Connectors Clean

Before use OTDR, first, you should watch out if the connectors are clean. If it’s dirty, then clean it. Otherwise, it will make measurements unreliable, noisy or even impossible. What’s worse, it may damage the OTDR.

Check the Connector or the Patch Cord

Check whether the patch cord, the module, and the fiber under test are single-mode or multimode. To test the patch cord, activate the laser in the CW (Coarse Wavelength) mode and measure the power at the end of the patch cord with a power meter. This should be between 0 and – 4 dBm for most single-mode modules and wavelengths.

Set the Range

The range is the distance over the cable which the OTDR will measure. The range should be longer than the cable you are testing. For example, if your link is 56.3 km long, choose 60 km. For distances greater than approximately 15 km, make your first measurement in longhaul mode, otherwise use shorthaul.

Determine the Wavelength

Usually single-mode is set for 1310 nm or 1550 nm, and multimode is set for 850 nm or 1300 nm.

Averages of Noisy Traces

If the trace is very noisy, increase the number of averages. Usually 16-64 averages are adequate. To improve the signal to noise ration of the trace, the OTDR can average multiple measurements, but averaging takes time. So try to average over a longer time.

Realtime Mode

In this mode, you can modify parameters only if you stop a measurement explicitly. So it avoids you to erase a trace averaged over a long time by accident. You use realtime mode to check your connection, the quality of splices, and whether a fiber is connected. Start in automatic mode, then switch to realtime mode and select the most suitable parameters.

Adjust the Refractive Index

If you know the exact physical length of the fiber under test, you can measure the refractive index. Start with the refractive index 1.5000. Place a marker at the end of the fiber. Then select the refractive index function and adjust it until the displayed marker position is equal to the known fiber length. Then, the effective refractive index will be displayed.

Macrobending Loss

Single-mode fibers (1550 nm) are very sensitive to macrobending such as a tight bend or local pressure on the cable. It doesn’t always happen at this wavelength of 1310 nm. So characterize your link at both wavelengths.

OTDRs are invaluable test instruments. Maybe a small mistake will cause serious damage to this equipment. So before use itBusiness Management Articles, you should better know it as detailed as possible to avoid any loss because of innocence and make full use of it in optical fiber events.

How Much Do You Know Fiber Optic Testing?

For every fiber optic cable plant, you need to test for continuity and polarity, end-to-end insertion loss, etc. If there were a problem, it must be fixed to keep the fiber optic cable plant working properly and ensure the communications equipment operate well.

Testing Tools

Fiber optic cable testing needs special tools and instruments. And they must be appropriate for the components or cable plants being tested. The following five kinds of fiber testing tools are needed for the testing work.

OLTS—Optical loss test set (OLTS) with optical ratings matching the specifications of the installed system (fiber type and transmitter wavelength and type) and proper connector adapters. Power meter and source are also needed for testing transmitter and receiver power for the system testing.
Reference test cable—This cable should be with proper sized fiber and connectors and compatible mating adapters of known good quality. And the connector loss is less than 0.5 dB.
VFL—Visual fiber tracer or visual fault locator (VFL)
Microscope—Connector inspection microscope with magnification of 100-200X, video microscopes recommended.
Cleaning Materials—Cleaning materials intended specifically for the cleaning of fiber optic connectors, such as dry cleaning kits or lint free cleaning wipes and pure alcohol.

Notes Before Testing Cleaning Issue

Before testing, it’s very important to keep connector clean so that there is no dirt present on the end face of the connector ferrule as the dirt will cause high loss and reflectance. For example, the dust caps which is used to keep connectors clean usually contain dust. So it may leave residue or cause harm to the connectors to use cleaning tools with dirt.

Eye Protection

Connector inspection microscopes focus all the light into the eye and can increase the danger. Some DWDM and CATV systems have very high power and they could be harmful. Though fiber optic testing sources are too low in power to cause eye damage, it’s still suggested to check connectors with a power meter before looking it. As most fiber optic sources are at infrared wavelengths that are invisible to the eye, making them more dangerous. So better protect your eyes from these potential harms.

Loss Budget

Before testing, you should clearly know the loss budget as reference loss values for the cable plant to be tested. Here are some guidelines:

    • For connectors, 0.3-0.5 dB loss; for adhesive/polish connectors, 0.75 dB loss; for prepolished/splice connectors (0.75 max from TIA-568)
    • For single-mode fiber, 0.5 dB/km for 1300 nm, 0.4 dB/km for 1550 nm. It means a loss of 0.1 dB per 600 feet for 1300 nm, 0.1 dB per 750 feet for 1550 nm.
    • For each splice, 0.2 dB
    • For multimode fiber, the loss is about 3 dB/km for 850 nm, 1 dB/km for 1300 nm. It means a loss of 0.1 dB per 100 feet for 850 nm, 0.1 dB per 300 feet for 1300 nm.

So for the loss of a cable plant will calculated as (0.5 dB X # connectors) + (0.2 dB x # splices) + fiber loss on the total length of cable.

Fiber Optic Loss Testing

Before installation, it’s necessary to inspect all cables as received on the reel for continuity using a visual tracer or fault locator. An OTDR is needed to test if cables are damaged during the shipment. Any cable showing damage should not be installed.

After installation, all cables should be tested for insertion loss using a meter of OLTS according to standards OFSTP-14 for multimode fiber and OFSTP-7 for single-mode fiber. Usually cables are tested individually (connector to connector for each terminated section of cable and then a complete concatenated cable plant is tested “end-to-end”, excluding the patch cords that will be used to connect the communications equipment which are tested separately. Insertion loss testing should be done at the wavelengths of 850/1300 nm with LEDs for multimode fiber, 1310/1550 nm with lasers for single-mode fiber, 1490 for FTTH. Keep the data on insertion loss for future comparisons if problems arise or restoration becomes necessary. Long cables with splices may be tested with an OTDR to confirm splice quality and detect any problems caused during installation, but insertion loss testing with an OLTS (light source and power meter) is still required to confirm end-to-end loss.

Testing Results and Methods

If the cable plant loss is tested within the loss budget, the communication link should work properly.

If the loss is higher than the loss budget, first you need to test in the opposite direction using the single-ended method. Since this method can only test the connector on one end, you can isolate a bad connector. If the tested losses are the same on both directions, you need to test each segment separately to isolate the bad segment or use an OTDR if it is long enough.

If there is no light through the cable and only darkness when tested with your visual tracerFree Web Content, there must be very high loss. Then you need to cut the connector on one end (maybe the wrong one) by your decision.

Enterprise A2P SMS Market is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 7.9% through 2020

According to a new market report published by Future Market Insights “Enterprise Application-to-Person (A2P) SMS Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment, 2015 – 2020” the global enterprise A2P SMS market was valued at USD 23.4 Bn in 2014 and is expected to register a CAGR of 7.9% from 2015 to 2020. The growth of enterprise A2P SMS market is primarily driven by the increasing number of mobile subscribers. A2P SMS are currently used for various applications such as updating end-user with campaign perks, location-based opportunities, first-hand/breaking news, promoting brands, polling contest, and transactional messages by major industry verticals such as financial institutions and banking, gaming, travel and transport, retail, healthcare institutions and hospitality.

A2P SMS is a type of SMS service sent from an application, particularly a web application to a mobile subscriber. Introduction of applications such as Blackberry messenger and Whatsapp has resulted in substantial decrease in P2P (person-to-person) SMS volume. However, A2P messaging enables businesses and organizations to reach large targeted audiences of every age, and demography (having any type of mobile phone) at low cost. Thus, A2P SMS offers potential opportunity for the growth for entire SMS market.

Browse the full “Enterprise Application-to-Person (A2P) SMS Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment, 2015 – 2020” market research.

On the basis of traffic, the enterprise A2P SMS market is segmented as national and multi-country. The national-only sub segment was valued USD 3.1 Bn in 2014 and is anticipated to register a CAGR of 12.9% during the forecast period. The growth is primarily driven by growth in the e-commerce and BFSI industry. For instance, A2P messaging services are extensively adopted by banks and other financial institutions for issuing one-time passwords (OTPs) for transaction verifications or for processing customer verification for e-commerce transactions.

On the basis of messaging tools, the enterprise A2P SMS market is segmented as: cloud API messaging platform, and traditional and managed messaging platform. Among these, the cloud API messaging platform sub segment valued US$ 105.8 Mn in 2014 and is expected to reach US$ 174.8 Mn by the end of 2015. The growth is driven mainly by the advantages offered by cloud API messaging platform which includes wide messaging API coverage, intelligent message routing and delivery and highly scalable and reliable services.

Request Free Report Sample@ http://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/sample/rep-gb-1075

On the basis of applications, the enterprise A2P SMS market is segmented as pushed content services, interactive services, promotional campaigns, customer relationship management (CRM) services and others (inquiry and search related services). The CRM services are further sub segmented into two-factor authentication and one-time passwords. In the applications segment, the CRM services is the largest revenue contributing segment of the enterprise A2P SMS market. A2P SMS is also used for wide range of applications such as, payment confirmations, appointment reminders, and to send one-time passwords for two-level verification and offer real-time notification of fraudulent credit/debit card transactions. With growth in global economy, banking and financial institution, advertising and e-commerce industry are continuously witnessing growth traction. The application developers, marketers, and brands promoters are together utilizing SMS to strengthen their customer base, updating their users with breaking news, campaign perks, location-based opportunities, and other important information.

This report also covers trends driving each segment and offers analysis and insights of the potential of the enterprise A2P sms market in some key regions including North America, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Pacific (excluding Japan), Japan and Middle East & Africa. Among these regions, Asia Pacific accounted for the largest market share in 2014. The region is expected to observe the highest growth throughout the forecast period, with the countries such as India, China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia witnessing one of the highest adoption of A2P SMS globally. Additionally, the growth across these countries is also primarily driven by increasing e-commerce industry that leverages promotional campaigns for endorsing their brands across consumers (having mobile phones) of various age and demography.

Leading messaging platform providers and gateway solutions providers in the global enterprise A2P SMS market include OpenMarket Inc., SAP Mobile Services, Syniverse Technologies Inc., Twilio, Nexmo Co. Ltd., CLX Networks AB, and Mblox.

40GBASE-LR4 CWDM and PSM QSFP+ Transceiver Links

There are 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP+ transceivers and 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP+ transceivers. It’s known that 40GBASE-SR4 uses a parallel multimode fiber (MMF) link to achieve 40G. It offers 4 independent transmit and receive channels, each capable of 10G operation for an aggregate data rate of 40G over 100 meters of OM3 MMF or 150 meters of OM4 MMF. While for 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP+ transceivers, there are two kinds of links. One is coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) and the other is parallel single-mode fiber (PSM). What’s the difference?

40GBASE-LR4 CWDM QSFP+ Transceiver

QSFP-40GE-LR4, one of 40GBASE-LR4 CWDM QSFP+ transceivers, is compliant to 40GBASE-LR4 of the IEEE P802.3ba standard. The optical interface is a duplex LC connector. It can support transmission distance up to 10 km over single-mode fiber by minimizing the optical dispersion in the long-haul system.

This transceiver converts 4 inputs channels of 10G electrical data to 4 CWDM optical signals by a driven 4-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB) laser array, and then multiplexes them into a single channel for 40G optical transmission, propagating out of the transmitter module from the SMF. Reversely, the receiver module accepts the 40G CWDM optical signals input, and demultiplexes it into 4 individual 10G channels with different wavelengths. The central wavelengths of the 4 CWDM channels are 1271, 1291, 1311 and 1331 nm as members of the CWDM wavelength grid defined in ITU-T G694.2. Each wavelength channel is collected by a discrete photo diode and output as electric data after being amplified by a transimpedance amplifier (TIA).

40GBASE-LR4 PSM QSFP+ Transceiver

Different from CWDM QSFP+ transceiver which uses a LC connector, PSM QSFP+ is a parallel single-mode optical transceiver with an MTP/MPO fiber ribbon connector. It offers 4 independent transmit and receive channels, each capable of 10G operation for an aggregate data rate of 40G over single-mode fiber about 10 km. The cable can’t be twisted to keep proper channel to channel alignment.

In a PSM QSFP+, the transmitter module accepts electrical input signals and the receiver module converts parallel optical input signals via a photo detector array into parallel electrical output signals. The receiver module. All data signals are differential and support a data rates up to 10.3G per channel.

Difference of Two Links

What’s the difference of these two links? From the viewpoint of optical transceiver module structure, PSM seems more cost effective because it uses a single uncooled CW laser which splits its output power into four integrated silicon modulators. Besides, its array-fiber coupling to an MTP connector is relatively simple. From the viewpoint of infrastructure, PSM is more expensive, because when the link distance is long, PSM uses 8 optical single-mode fibers while CWDM uses only 2 optical single-mode fibers. For more about their differences, please see the following table:

What’s more, in the data center fiber infrastructure, the patch panel has to be changed to accommodate MTP cables. This would cost more than LC connectors and regular SMF cables. Besides, it’s not easy to clean MTP connectors. So CWDM is more profitable and popular for 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP+ link.

For 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP+ transceivers, both CWDM link and PSM link can reach the transmission distance of 10 km. 40GBASE-LR4 CWDM QSFP+ transceivers use a duplex LC connector via 2 optical single-mode fibers. And 40GBASE-LR4 PSM QSFP+ transceivers use an MTP/MPO fiber ribbon connector via 8 optical single-mode fibers. Thus, there is no need to make any changes to upgrade 10G fiber cable plant to 40G connectivity, which is more cost-effective. Fiberstore provides wide brand compatible 40G CWDM QSFP+ transceiversComputer Technology Articles, such as Juniper compatible JNP-QSFP-40G-LR4 and HP compatible JG661A. Each fiber optic transceiver has been tested to ensure its compatibility and interoperability.

Optical Connection Equipment Market Trends In 2016

A research company called IHS reported that many optical communication industries got great improvement in 2015 even though there are full of competitions. Now will optical interconnection hardware market keep growing in 2016?

Driven by the increasing needs for higher Ethernet speed, the optical interconnection grows rapidly in the last year. The advanced technologies and applications like Cloud, Internet of Things and virtual data center are widespread globally. Besides, the wide deployment of FTTx and 4G network also drives the optical interconnection market increasing. In 2016, the advanced technology and fiber optic network will be more and more pervasive. That will spur the growth of the optical interconnection hardware market. The main characteristics of 2016 optical interconnection hardware market can be concluded by the three keywords: high speed, compatibility and high density.

High Speed

It’s obvious that only high speed Ethernet like 40G or 100G can keep up with the market growing trends. In the past years, some large data centers have switched to 40G and 100G, although this network technology has not been widely applied. However, according to research by IHS, 40G and 100G will be the key growth segment of the market in the coming years, and 2016 might be the breakout year of 100G technologies. There are statistics about the prediction of global revenue from 2015 to 2019. The 100G market is supposed to grow 262 percent from 2015 to 2019. So sales of 100G optical interconnection hardware market will also increase largely. As one of the leading providers in optical communication, Fiberstore has already launched 100G interconnection products, like 100G optical transceivers and direct attach cable.

Compatibility

As we know, optical transceivers, direct attach cables and switches are indispensable for every data center. However, the switch market has already been monopolized by large vendors like Cisco. And the original products are quite expensive. So many data centers have to slow down their migration steps to 40/100G due to the cost. Luckily, vendors like Fiberstore can provide full series optical transceivers with a lifetime warranty, fully compatible with networking kit. What’s more, these products, named the third party products, are much cheaper than the original brand ones and have the same performance. These products offer customers more choices with low prices, which is very likely to promote the optical interconnection market, especially, for 100G products.

High Density

Though the high data rate products will be less expensive in 2016, there are still various problems to be solved for optical interconnection. High data rates means more cables and devices are needed while the data center space is limited. One method is to enlarge the data center size. But this method is not advocated since it costs much. So another economical method in interconnection is to increase the cabling density and port density. Vendors satisfy the market needs by providing small form factor optics, high density network rack system and MPO products. In 2016, we innovatively provide high density LC and MPO patch cords with push-pull tabs which can increase the cabling density and flexibility effectively. High density is the irreversible trend for both data center and optical interconnection hardware market.

Three most obvious characteristics of optical interconnection hardware market will be high speed, compatibility and high density. The increasing need for higher Ethernet speed will lead to the continuous optical interconnection hardware market growth in 2016. However, except opportunities, the competition in optical interconnection market will be fiercer. More vendors want to share the big cake of optical interconnect hardware market. On one side, we will provide more favorable optical interconnection products to attract customers. On the other sideFree Articles, we will improve the products quality with innovative technology to meet the challenges and opportunities in 2016.

Have You Done Fiber Optic Transceiver Testing?

Today, many users apply optical network components from different suppliers. Thus, we need to test if the optical transceivers are compatible and interoperatable with other components. Otherwise, components are possible to be broken. Meanwhile, the entire network can’t operate well.

As we know, a fiber optical transceiver has a transmitter and a receiver. The transceiver transmits data trough a fiber from transmitter to receiver. But the system doesn’t work and doesn’t get your desired bit-error-ratio (BER). What’s wrong? Is there anything wrong with the transmitter? Or is the receiver at fault? Maybe both are faulty. A low-quality transmitter can compensate for by a low-quality receiver (and vice versa). So specifications should guarantee that any receiver can interoperate with a worst-case transmitter, and any transmitter will provide a signal with sufficient quality so that it will interoperate with a worst-case receiver.

But it’s difficult to define worst case. The minimum level of power needed by the receiver to achieve the system BER target will give the order about minimum allowed output power level to the transmitter. If the receiver can only tolerate a certain level of jitter, this will be used to define the maximum acceptable jitter from the transmitter. Generally, to test an optical transceiver, there are four steps, including the transmitter testing and receiver testing.

Transmitter Testing
Transmitter parameters may include wavelength and shape of the output waveform while the receiver may specify tolerance to jitter and bandwidth. The following are the steps to test a transmitter:

First, to test the transmitter, the input signal must be good enough. Measurements of jitter and an eye mask test must be performed to confirm the quality. An eye mask test is the common method to view the transmitter waveform and provides a wealth of information about overall transmitter performance.

Second, the optical output of the transmitter must be tested using several optical quality metrics such as a mask test, OMA (optical modulation amplitude), and Extinction Ratio.

Receiver Testing
To test a receiver, there are also two steps:

Third, different from the transmitter testing, which requires the input signal must be good enough, the receiver testing involves sending in a signal that is of poor enough quality. To do this, a stressed eye representing the worst case signal shall be created. This is an optical signal, and must be calibrated using jitter and optical power measurements.

Finally, testing the electrical output of the receiver must be performed. Three basic categories of tests must be performed:
a. A mask test, which ensures a large enough eye opening. The mask test is usually accompanied by a BER (bit error ratio) depth.
b. Jitter budget test, which tests for the amount of certain types of jitter.
c. Jitter tracking and tolerance, which tests the ability of the internal clock recovery circuit to track jitter within its loop bandwidth.

All in all, fiber optic transceiver testing is not easy. But it’s necessary to ensure good network performance. Basic eye-mask test is an effective way to test a transmitter and is still widely used today. While receiver testing is more complicated and needs more methods. Fiberstore provides all kinds of transceivers, which can be compatible with many brands, such as Cisco, HP, IBM, Arista, Brocade, DELL, Juniper etc. And every fiber optic transceiver has been tested to ensure the optics superior quality. For more information about the transceivers or compatible performance test, please visit www.fs.com or contact us over sales@fs.com.

Introduction to Gbic Transceiver Modules

BIC, short for Gigabit Interface Converter, has been a standard form factor for optical transceivers. Transceivers in the market today have been developed several times. The prominent one is the GBIC transceiver which is hot plug-hole. This selection enables an appropriately designed enclosure to be changed from a distinct kind of external interface to a different one by just plugging a GBIC possessing an alternate external interface. Just because of the elasticity, the GBIC is regarded as an appealing networking equipment. As there are a range of various optical technologies deployed, IT staff can procure GBIC transceiver modules as needed, for that exact type of link needed.

Function and Transfer Speed

A GBIC module acts as a transceiver that turns electric currents into optical signals, before changing those optical signals into digital electric currents. The purpose is to simplify switch and hub design. Each GBIC module is in place for making system administration of electro-optical communication networks easier. These modules plug directly into a system. They were first designed to support Fibre Channel data networks but are also used with Gigabit Ethernet setups. This module is good for users to avoid spending on fully populated switching equipment. Data transfer rates are different on GBIC module model specifications, but they have a minimum of 1 gigabit per second. Manufacturers make GBIC modules with varying transfer speeds.

Advantages and Applications

GBIC transceiver modules have many benefits. This module is suitable for interconnections within the Gigabit Ethernet centers and swaps from one environment to the other. Designs are very simple for certain high-end performances according to the converters. It also helps in point-to-point interaction that needs fiber channel or gigabyte interconnections. For example, the CWDM GBIC transceivers may be used in campuses, data centers and metropolitan area access networks for Gigabit Ethernet and fiber channels because it is a commendable and cost-effective option.

In optic networks, GBIC is often used as an interface between fiber optic system with an Ethernet system. Common applications include fiber channel and Gigabit Ethernet. This form factor allows to manufacture one type that can be used for both copper and optical applications. GBIC modules are also not stoppable. It’s simple for users to upgrade optical networks and change connections to match their requirements.

With a GBIC transceiver, Gigabit network devices are able to connect directly to single mode fiber ports, copper wires or any other multimode fiber ports. And GBIC transceivers are also ideal for using in the Gigabit Ethernet hubs. SFP or even the small form factor portable is the restructured adaptation of GBIC transceiver. Transmitting distance is about from 500 meters to120 kilometers. Besides being passionate placable, they’re simple to maintain. They will use the lesser kinds of fiber interface and the body that are much smaller compared to conventional GBIC. The converter designs are perfect for high performance and point-to-point exchanges that require gigabyte or fiber channel interconnections.

Installation Advices

When installing a GBIC transceiver, you should note the alignment pattern at the transceiver side to make it compatible, rather apposite for the Ethernet interface slot. Users may feel the need to turn it to 180 degrees that’s fit for that interface. The products can be in copper wire, multi-mode fiber and single-mode fiber. HoweverFree Reprint Articles, GBIC transceiver module has got the choice of plug and play.

Bulk sms software for multi device for sending group text messages globally

ulk SMS Software-Multi Device Edition to deliver number of sms using GSM technology based mobile phone. Software allows you to connect multiple GSM mobile phone with your Windows computer or laptop. SMS gateway application can broadcast product launching details, share market updates, promotion campaigns, important alerts, reminders, invitations, seasonal greetings and other personalized sms around the world in less time.

Text messaging software is  useful to get in touch with your relatives, friends, customers, clients and business partner via sending unlimited sms instantely. Software provides facility to advertise your business products and brands by broadcasting bulk sms. Mobile messaging software is compatible with all brands of GSM technology based mobile phones including Nokia, Samsung, Motorola, LG and many others.

Key features of bulk sms software:

  1. Software provides facility to send Unique or personalized sms using excel file.
  2. Message broadcasting software easily send notification as well as standard messages from PC.
  3. Application provides facility to skip duplicate contact number entries during message sending process.
  4. Application provides option to load contacts from text/excel or also allows user to add or paste mobile number manually.
  5. Software provides inbuilt exclusion list wizard feature to manage excluded contacts list or groups.
  6. Text messaging utility provides delay delivery option to maintain the load of multiple sms sending.
  7. Bulk sms application provides facility to save sent text messages to template which can be viewed later.
  8. Sms sending program supports non-English (Unicode) characters to send sms in different language.

Company profile:

SendGroupSMS.com is information technology based company started in year 2005Free Reprint Articles, in Ghaziabad (UP) India. Our company consists of various highly skilled IT professional and software engineers for developing different types of computer application. Company specializes to develop bulk sms software for Windows and Mac OS which is used for sending multiple text messages with requiring internet connection.